classification of fractures of mandible, fractures of midface, fractures of zygomaticomaxillary complex, fractures of NOE (facial fractures). Zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures, also known as a tripod, tetrapod, quadripod, malar or thoracolumbar spinal fracture classification systems. ZMC complex fracture. Tripod fx Right zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture with disruption of the lateral orbital wall, orbital floor, zygomatic arch and maxillary sinus. The zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture, also known as a quadripod fracture, quadramalar Classification. D · ICD .

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Zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture

Report of a case. Classification and treatment of zygomatic fractures: Surgery of Facial Fractures; pp. This tutorial classifiation the details of the AOCMF image-based classification system for fractures of the midface at the precision level 3.

To avoid confusion, two terms used conventionally in the dental nomenclature merit clarification: Application of a facial injury severity scale in craniomaxillofacial trauma.

Illustration of maxilla edentulism and atrophy. To account for a more selective analysis of the individual frwctures pretrauma condition, the dentition and the degree of atrophy in the maxillary processes in case of partial or total edentulism are recorded. Dentition The nomenclature to describe the dental sequelae of a midfacial injury follows the same scheme as used in lcassification level 3 system for mandibular fractures.

The Comprehensive AOCMF Classification System: Midface Fractures – Level 3 Tutorial

NOE reaching into the adjacent regions such as the frontonasal maxilla in association with displacement of the orbital contents, orbital dystopia, or bone loss.

Pitfalls in the management of zygomatic fractures. Alveolar process fractures are documented similarly to the mandible. The nasal skeleton is represented within the UCM including the upper septum, whereas the lower septum is included within in the LCM. As the course of the fracture lines bypasses the ZSS it is left blank.


Fractures of the Facial Skeleton. There are several classification proposals in prosthetic dentistry and implantology to quantify the degree of atrophy in edentulous jaws. Three stages of atrophy are defined: Fractures of the atrophic, edentulous maxilla during Le Fort I osteotomy. Displacement is attested whenever the fragments have moved out of their original location and lack alignment to the skeletal superstructure regardless of the metric amount.

Churchill Livingstone ; Case 5 Case 5. No matter to which of the two classification archetypes is resorted to, attention must be paid fractufes the clinical status of the medial canthal ligament. Skull base and maxillofacial fractures: The cause is usually a direct blow to the malar eminence of the cheek during assault. The medial or central part consists of the paired nasal bones.

Classification and treatment of zygomatic fractures: a review of 1, cases.

B1—B3 En bloc zygoma fracture: Essentials of craniomaxillofacial trauma Quality. Involvement confined to anterior and midorbit sections: This level 3 Midface Module deals with the dentition status and alveolar process atrophy in the maxilla as two clinically relevant items for refined description of the preinjury condition.

In loose accordance with the height of the vomer and the perpendicular plate, the entire septal structure is arbitrarily subdivided along claesification vertical extent into two halves, the upper and lower septum. Fracture Involvement of the Alveolar Process Alveolar process fractures are documented similarly to the mandible.


Basilar skull fracture Blowout fracture Mandibular fracture Nasal fracture Le Fort fracture of skull Zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture Zygoma fracture. Classification and treatment of malar fractures. LCM fracture left, paramedian midline fracture of the palate; left maxillary alveolar process fracture 11—13, vertical tooth fracture 14, avulsion On physical exam, the fracture appears as a loss of cheek projection with increased width of the face.

Clinical analysis of isolated zygomatic arch fractures.

A series of three case examples illustrates the recording and coding of representative midface fractures:. The zygoma and its anatomical subregions constitute the lateral midface attached to each side of the maxillary portions of the central midface pyramid in transition to the greater sphenoid wing, the frontal bone, and the temporal bone.

Fractures and cartilage injuries Sx2— Undoubtedly, it is far more convenient to assess the dental status and dental or periodontal injuries in panoramic X-rays or Cone Beam CTs than in helical CT scans.

Involvement of midface and craniofacial transition as a consequence of fractures extending into the superomedial quadrants of the orbital rim – this is indicated by the marking of the entire frontal bone area. Duverney fracture Pipkin fracture.

In NOE fractures, the extent of injury going beyond the nasal skeletal components into the ethmoid sinuses and the medial orbital walls including the nasolacrimal ducts must be clearly delineated.