Guidelines regarding constitution / reconstitution of IAEC 48th Meeting of CPCSEA was held on 21st August, under the Chairmanship of Shri Hem. PDF | The effect of implementation of guidelines of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and The results showed that the implementation of CPCSEA guidelines in pharmacy institution . Mar ; J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg. PDF | On Dec 29, , Pandey Govind and others published Guidelines of CPCSEA for conducting the experiment on animals.

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A framework program for the teaching of alternative methods replacement, reduction, refinement to animal experimentation. Poor reproducibility of Draize test in rabbits, poor extrapolation of safety of acetyl salicylic acid, citalopram and recombinant antibodies from animals to humans are other examples that validate this fact. Postgraduate teaching to demonstrate the effects of various drugs, to determine the nature of an unknown drug for bioassay, screening methods and to learn skills e.

Cats are most commonly used in neurological research. All noble prizes in physiology or medicine. This document published as early as in also emphasized that researchers need to reduce, replace and refine the use of animals so as to minimize the pain and distress to animals.

Animal use in pharmacology education and research: The changing scenario

About million animals ranging from zebra fish to non-human primates are used for experimentation every year. The government in U. Poland, Czech Republic and Romania reported a relatively high level of use of computer-based alternatives. On the other side of the coin are scientists who advocate the relevant and judicious use of animals in research so that new discoveries can continue.

The mission of medicine is to eliminate suffering to maintain a good health, which may prolong the life. More than a cosmetic change.

Cultured cells have been developed to create monoclonal antibodies and cell lines have been extensively used in cancer research as well. Network of Indian pharmacologists. Selection and appointment of nominees in the Institutional Animal Ethics Committees of registered establishments. University of Edinburgh, UK.


Examples include, established animal cell lines, animal cells, tissues and organs collected from animals sacrificed by a humane technique, abattoir material, invertebrates, such as Drosophila and nematode worms, larval forms of amphibians and fish until the stage where they become capable of independent feeding and bacteria, fungi etc[ 2430 ].

The various alternatives used are mannequins, videos, observational and field studies, materials from slaughter house and fisheries, supervised clinical experience etc. It provides excellent information about human metabolism.

Postgraduate medical education regulations, amended upto For this purpose, the Government has made “Breeding of and Experiments on Animals Control and Supervision Rules, ” as amended during andto regulate the experimentation on animals. In spite of some obvious drawbacks like the lack of an adaptive immune system which is a deterrent for their use in certain types of research such as vaccine development, these organisms do have a potential as alternatives to use of conventional animals.

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Rodents rats, mice and non-rodents guixelines are usually used in these toxicity studies. Rabbits are also frequently used for production of polyclonal antibodies. Insulin was first isolated from dogs in and it revolutionized the treatment of diabetes. We evaluated these software programs and found that the alternatives are implementable and decrease the cost and time spent on animal experiments. However, debates and confusions prevail on this issue, in the absence of clear-cut guidelines.

Synthetic replacement using a protein membrane to simulate a skin barrier is approved as a partial replacement. The sources also vary based on species required. Models for biomedical research, testing and education.

There have been threats to researchers from animal rights activists.

Methods which minimize animal use and enable researchers to obtain comparable levels of information from fewer animals or to obtain more information from the same number of animals. The morphological and molecular basis of tissue and organ development are, in general, either identical or similar to other vertebrates including man. Ina trial of a monoclonal antibody in primates triggered a disastrous immune reaction and widespread organ failure in the six trial animals.


Cosmetic testing on animals is particularly controversial and involves general toxicity, eye and skin cpcseq, phototoxicity and mutagenicity. Development of alternatives to animal experiments in teaching seems less tedious. For each chemical test, approximately animals are used. In the s, antibiotic treatment and vaccines for leprosy were developed using armadillos.

These are available as free modules and as advanced guidelinss versions. Replacing animal use in physiology and pharmacology teaching in selected universities in eastern Europe-charting a 2041 forward.

A few examples of these alternatives are:. Most of present day’s drug discoveries were possible because of the use of animals in research. The time taken is months and this method is relatively cost effective. Drug metabolism can also be studied in hydra, a eumetazoan diploblastic organism belonging to the phylum Cnidaria.

Animal use in pharmacology education and research: The changing scenario

Virtual experimental pharmacology an alternative or not? Introduction The mission of medicine is to eliminate suffering to maintain a good health, which may prolong the life. Enquiries through email will be prefered. It has been seen that selected group of fungi have the ability to metabolize a wide variety of drugs.

On the other hand, animal activists were using extreme measures to stop animal use. The main concern for animals in experimentation is physical and mental stress and pain. The most used invertebrate species are Drosophila melanogastera fruit fly and Caenorhabditis elegansa nematode worm.

Their use has increased in the past two decades and a population-based atlas of the zebra fish brain has recently been developed. The in silico methods include models of diabetes, asthma and drug absorption. A few examples include computer models to model human metabolism, to study plaque buildup and cardiovascular risk and to evaluate toxicity of drugs.